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Apa Itu Stereotip Gender Reassignment

What would happen if we replaced the word “gender” with the word “sexism”?

For example:

= Sexism Dysphoria

= Sexist Stereotype Identity

= Sexism Affirmation Surgery

= Sex Role Stereotype Transition

= Sexistqueer

= Cross-Sex-Stereotype

= Stereotypical Sex Role Reassignment 

= Sexism-phobia

Well let’s have a look:

A selection of Wikipedia excerpts, replacing the word “gender” with “sexism”:

Corrections are in blue:

Transgender “Cross-sex-stereotype” is the state of one’s “gender identity”sexist stereotype (self-identification as a sex stereotype) not matching one’s “assigned sex” (identification by others as male, female or intersex based on physical/genetic sex).[1] “Cross-sex-stereotype” does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation; Cross-sex-stereotypical people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, polysexual, or asexual; some may consider conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate or inapplicable to them. The precise definition for cross-sex-stereotypism remains in flux, but includes:

0.”Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female sex stereotypes, but combines sexist stereotypes or moves between these.”[2]

0.”People who were assigned a sex role stereotype, usually at birth and based on their genitals, but who feel that this is a false or incomplete description of themselves.”[3]

0.”Non-identification with, or non-presentation as, the sex stereotype (and assumed sex role stereotype ) one was assigned at birth.”[4]

A cross-sex-stereotype individual may have characteristics that are normally associated with a particular sexist stereotype, identify elsewhere on the traditional sexist stereotype continuum, or exist outside of it as “other”, “” “asexist-stereotype“, ” “Sexist stereotype queer” , or ” “third sexist stereotype”. Cross-sexist stereotype people may also identify as bi-sexist stereotypes, or along several places on either the traditional sexist stereotype continuum, or the more encompassing sexist stereotype continuums which have been developed in response to the significantly more detailed studies done in recent years.[5]

The term transgender (TG) was popularised in the 1970s[6] (but implied in the 1960s[7][8]) describing people who wanted to live –cross-sexist stereotypical role without sexism confirmation surgery.[9] In the 1980s the term was expanded to an umbrella term,[10] and became popular as a means of uniting all those whose sexist stereotypes did not mesh with their sexist stereotype assigned at birth.[11]

People who live cross-sex-stereotypes

People who live cross-sexist stereotypes live always or mostly as the sexist stereotype other than that assigned at birth. If they want to be or identify as theirsexist stereotype assigned at birth, then the term “crossdresser”[46] may be used. If they want to be or identify as the sex role stereotype they always or mostly live in, then the term “transsexual” may be used.[30] The term “transgender”[47][48][49] or “transgenderist”[50] has been applied to people who live cross-sexist stereotypes without sexism confirmation surgery.

e Sex stereotypists and feminism

Some feminists and feminist groups are supportive of sexist people. Others are not.

Though second-wave feminism argued for the sex and sexist stereotype distinction, some feminists believed there was a conflict between sexist stereotypes and the feminist cause. These feminists believed, for example, that male-to-female sex stereotype transition abandoned or devalued female biological reality, and that sexist stereotype embracing people embraced traditional sexist roles and stereotypes. Many cross-sex-stereotypeembracing feminists, however, viewed themselves as contributing positively to feminism by questioning and subverting sexist stereotype norms. Third wave and contemporary feminism have tended to be more accepting of sexist stereotype embracing people.[57]

Feminist writer Janice Raymond asserts that sex determinessex, and that there is no practical difference between the two. In her view, genitalia or “birth sex” or chromosomes deeply and permanently determine one’s sex as a woman or man; trying to violate this divide is impossible, unnatural, and unhealthy. She argues that while sexists may claim to feel like a certain sexist stereotype, only a biological female can genuinely feel what it is to occupy a woman’s body, including having experiences such as childbirth.[58]

Sexist stereotype embracing people and the law

Legal procedures exist in some jurisdictions allowing individuals to change their legal sex, or their sexist stereotypical name, to reflect their sexism. Requirements for these procedures vary from an explicit formal diagnosis of transsexualism, to a diagnosis of sexist identity disorder, to a letter from a physician attesting to the individual’s sexist stereotype transition, or the fact that one has established a different sexist stereotype role.[71]

Sexism-phobia (or less commonly feminism, sex stereotype prejudice, and  dude-misogyny, referring to transphobia directed toward sexistmen or lady-misandry, referring to a sexism-phobia directed toward sexist women) is a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards sexist and sexist stereotype embracing people, based on the expression of their internal sexism (see Phobia – terms indicating prejudice or class discrimination). Whether intentional or not, sex stereotype-phobia can have severe consequences for the target of the negative attitude. Many sexist stereotype embracing people also experience homophobia from people who associate their cross-sex stereotypes with homosexuality.

Some members of the LGBT communities are uncomfortable withsexist stereotyping individuals and issues. For example, men are sometimes denied entry to women’s spaces, an attitude which Sexist activists consider to be sexism-phobic. The Michigan Womyn’s Music Festival, for instance, has caused much debate for limiting its attendance to “womyn-born womyn”.[12]

Womyn-born-womyn

Janice Raymond, Mary Daly and Sheila Jeffreys, among others, argue that the feminist movement should not concern itself in any way with the needs of sex-stereotype embracingmales. The idea that only “womyn-born-womyn” can fully identify with the experience of being a woman conflicts with the concept that “biology does not equal destiny”. Opponents argue that excluding sex-stereotype embracingmales from women’s spaces denies sex stereotype embracingmales their right to self-identification.

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Not to be confused with Discrimination against intersex people.

Discrimination or prejudice against non-binary people, people who do not identify as exclusively masculine or feminine, is a form of sexism[1][2], as well as a specific type of transphobia.[3] Both cisgender and binary transgender people (men and women), including members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities, can display such prejudice.[4]

Social discrimination[edit]

In the binary gender system, genderqueerness is unintelligible and abjected.[5] A 2008 study in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey showed that genderqueer and other non-binary individuals were more likely to suffer physical assaults (32% vs. 25%), experience police brutality and harassment (31% vs. 21%), and opt out of medical treatment due to discrimination (36% vs. 27%) compared to transgender individuals who identified within the gender binary (i.e., trans men and trans women). This study also found that they were more likely to be people of color (30% vs. 23%) and younger (under 45) than binary transgender people (89% vs. 68%).[6]:22 In another study conducted by the National LGBTQ Task Force,[6] responders who identified as neither male nor female were less likely to be white and more likely to be multi racial, Black, or Asian, but less likely to be Latin-American/Spanish in origin compared to those who identified as male or female. 20% of non-binary individuals lived in the lowest household income category.[7]

Social discrimination in the context of discrimination against non-binary and gender non-conforming people includes the excusing of hate-motivated violence and two, hate-motivated violence itself. Roffee and Waling discovered multiple boundaries when conducting a study into hate speech and violence against LGBTI people, due to the confronting nature of the interviews, which had the potential to distress the participants. Further than this, there is a potential that people would not have elected to participate for fear of being distressed. Once completing the study, Roffee and Waling (2016) discovered that many of the participants' accounts of victimisation could have warranted police involvement, though the participants had refrained from this for personal reasons.[8]

Workplace discrimination[edit]

United States[edit]

Unemployment rates for transgender people are approximately twice as high as those for cisgender people.[9] In the National Transgender Discrimination Survey[10] conducted by the LGBTQ+ Task Force, it was found that almost all non-binary persons had experienced discrimination in the workplace. Their findings show that being out as a non-binary person negatively affects that person's employment outcomes. Though non-binary persons have higher unemployment rates than those who identify with a specified gender, masculine non-binary persons who still appear male, or are not "passing as female" generally have a harder time in the work environment.[11]

19% of non-binary trans persons reported job loss due to anti-transgender bias, and 90% reported experiencing anti-transgender bias on the job. 78% of those who had transitioned during their time at the workplace were happy with their choice to do so, and reported feeling more comfortable at work, although they experienced more discrimination.[12]:11

Health discrimination[edit]

United States[edit]

In the 2008 National Transgender Discrimination survey, it was discovered that 14% of gender-nonconforming individuals reported discrimination in medical care, though 36% were "more likely to avoid care altogether when sick or injured because of the fear of discrimination".[7] 43% were likely to have attempted suicide compared to the U.S. rate of 1.6%.[7] A survey conducted among Rural U.S. LGBT populations, suggested that transgender & non-binary patients were three times more likely to find health care providers that have other LGBT patients. They were also three times more likely to drive over an hour out of the way to visit their health care provider due “to the fact that in the last year, one in ten had visited an LGBT-specific health care clinic, which are often located in urban areas.” [13] Transgender & non-binary peoples generally seek greater care because of the stigma and the lack of knowledge about their experience on the behalf of rural physicians.[13]

United Kingdom[edit]

In a similar survey conducted by UK Trans Info, the vast majority of non-binary responders reported "fear of treatment being denied" as the main deterrent for not seeking healthcare. Many reported anxiety over having to deny their identities or "pretend to be someone [they are] not" in order to receive treatment. As a result, 20% reported self-medicating as an alternative to seeking healthcare. In the same survey, it was reported that most non-binary individuals use National Health Services compared to private practices. 46% of the individuals who used NHS presented themselves as binary to receive treatment and 72% did so while using private services.[14]

Australia[edit]

Elderly care in Australia alienated non-binary individuals using strictly male or female practices and social activities before recent changes in their healthcare system. In an attempt to create a more equitable experience for LGBT and gender non-conforming elders, the Australian Government created "the National LGBTI Ageing and Aged Care Strategy (the Strategy) the first federal strategy in the world focused on older 'LGBTI' populations" in 2012. The Sex Discrimination Act of 1984 was also updated in 2013 to include sexual orientation, relationship status, gender identity, and intersex status. This act banned any 'faith-based discrimination' that may target transgender or non-binary gender peoples in federal care service.[15]

Legal discrimination[edit]

Not to be confused with Legal recognition of non-binary gender.

United States[edit]

Despite being more likely to achieve higher levels of education when compared to the general public,[12]:11 90% of non-binary individuals face discrimination, often in the form of harassment in the workplace. Nineteen percent of genderqueer individuals report job loss as a result of their identities.[12] Anti-discrimination laws that prohibit discrimination specifically against non-binary individuals do not exist.[citation needed] However, Title VII and the current proposed version of the federal Employment Non-Discrimination Act use such terms as "gender identity" and "gender expression", categories under which non-binary individuals fall due to the fact that their gender expression cannot be defined as male or female.[12]

Twelve states currently have legislation which bars discrimination based on gender identity.[16] Despite these efforts, non-binary individuals are subject to higher rates of physical and sexual assault and police harassment than those who identify as men or women, likely due to their gender expression or presentation.[6][17]

Identity documents[edit]

According to the Transgender Law Center, 70% of transgender people are not able to update their identity documents and one-third of have been harassed, assaulted or turned away when seeking basic services,[18] and one third are not able to update their documents post-transition. [19]

In 2016, the U.S. State Department was sued for denying a passport to Dana Zzyym, who is a veteran and an intersex and non-binary person. Zzyym wrote "intersex" on their passport form instead of male or female, which were the only two available gender fields on the form. Zzyym was denied the passport, which led to LGBTQ advocacy organizations filing a lawsuit against the U.S. State Department on Zzyym's behalf. The advocacy group Lambda Legal argued for gender-neutral terms and a third option on U.S. passports, arguing that the existing passport fields violated the Due Process Clause and Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The State Department argued that adding additional gender fields to the passport form would prevent the agency's efforts to combat identity theft and passport fraud. The Tenth Circuit Court ruled in favor of Zzyym, the first time in U.S. history that the federal government recognized non-binary people.[20]

California, the District of Columbia, New York City, New York State, Iowa, Vermont, Oregon and Washington State have currently removed the surgical requirement to complete a change on a birth certificate. In these states, to change the gender on a birth certificate, one must fill out a standardized form but legal or medical approvals are not required. In Washington D.C., the applicant fills out the top half of the form and a health or social service professional must fill out the bottom half. A person may face obstacles obtaining a court order in order to make a change to documents in other states. Tennessee is the only state that has a specific statute that forbids altering the gender designation on a birth certificate due to gender surgery, while Idaho and Ohio have the same prohibition, but via court decision rather than by statute; and in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, a court ruled that gender markers could not be changed on identity documents under any circumstances.[21][22]

In California, the Gender Recognition Act of 2017 was introduced in the State Senate in Sacramento in January 2017, and signed into law by governor Jerry Brown on October 19. The law recognizes a third gender option known as "non-binary" which may be used on state-issued documents such as driver's licenses to more accurately reflect a person's gender. Senate bill SB179 was originally drafted by State Senators Toni Atkins and Scott Wiener. The law also makes it easier for existing documents to be changed, by removing requirements for sworn statements by physicians and replacing it with a sworn attestation by the person seekng to make the change to their documents. The Executive Director of Equality California commented, "It is up to an individual—not a judge or even a doctor—to define a person's gender identity."[23][24]

Currently, only two US citizens are believed to be legally registered as non-binary. In Oregon, Jamie Shupe was able to declare their gender as non-binary in June 2016 after a brief legal battle and successfully granted petition for a legal change in gender.[25] Following in Shupe's footsteps, California resident Sarah Kelly Keenan was also able to legally change her gender marker to non-binary in September 2016.[26] After both Shupe and Keenan had success with their cases, more people have been inspired to take on the legal battle of changing their gender to a non-binary marker. There are hopes that this will lead to the normalization of non-binary as a legal gender, but there are still no federal laws in place to allow for such a thing.

Housing[edit]

As of 2017, transgender and genderfluid students, among others, are given priority when choosing housing at The New School in New York City.[27]

United Kingdom[edit]

Non-binary is not recognized as a legal gender in the United Kingdom.[28] The Gender Recognition Act 2004 allowed people to apply to the Gender Recognition Panel for a change of gender after living as the gender they wished to show on all their legal documents and being given a diagnosis of gender dysphoria by at least two health professionals. However, this change of gender only allowed for a change from male to female or vice versa.

In 2006 the Identity Cards Act 2006 was introduced, which issued documents to UK residents and linked them back to the National Identity Register database. When the issue of transgender people and their assigned vs. actual gender came up, it was said that transgender people would be issued two cards, each with a separate male and female gender marker.[29] It was also said that eventually the hope for some was that the identity cards would get rid of the gender markers altogether. The Identity Documents Act 2010 made all these cards invalid and called for their immediate destruction.

Australia[edit]

In 2014, the Australian High Court legally recognized non-binary as a category for people to identify with on legal documents. After a citizen named Norrie made a request for a third gender identity on legal documents and was eventually denied, Norrie chose to take the matter up with Australia's Human Rights Commission and their Court of Appeal. After a four-year long legal battle beginning in 2010, Norrie finally won the case. From this and the legalizing of the matter in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory made the decision to pass a law which recognized non-binary identities. Though this is a step in a positive direction for non-binary identifying Australians, the law currently lacks concise policies on marriage licenses and recognition of partnership for non-binary people. Because of this, Australians registered as non-binary may not be able to legally marry.

In addition to marriage issues, the non-binary marker for Australian citizens requires proof of gender confirmation surgery. Because non-binary people live outside of the gender binary, they may not wish to obtain gender confirmation surgery. The people not wishing to do so ultimately will not be able to register as non-binary until this portion of the law is amended.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Roger J.R. Levesque (5 September 2011). Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Springer. p. 2641. ISBN 978-1-4419-1694-5. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  2. ^Frederick T.L. Leong; Wade E. Pickren; Mark M. Leach; Anthony J. Marsella (1 November 2011). Internationalizing the Psychology Curriculum in the United States. Springer. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4614-0072-1. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  3. ^Norton, Jody (1997). ""Brain Says You're a Girl, But I Think You're a Sissy Boy": Cultural Origins of Transphobia". International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies. 2, Number 2 (2): 139–164. doi:10.1023/A:1026320611878. 
  4. ^Kelsie Brynn Jones (February 2, 2016). "When Being Trans Is Not Trans Enough". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 4, 2016. 
  5. ^Hale, J.C. (1998) "...[O]ur embodiments and our subjectivities are abjected from social ontology: we cannot fit ourselves into extant categories without denying, eliding, erasing, or otherwise abjecting personally significant aspects of ourselves ... When we choose to live with and in our dislocatedness, fractured from social ontology, we choose to forgo intelligibility: lost in language and in social life, we become virtually unintelligible, even to ourselves..." from Consuming the Living, Dis(Re)Membering the Dead in the Butch/FtM Borderlands in the Gay and Lesbian Quarterly 4:311, 336 (1998). Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  6. ^ abcJack Harrison; Jaime Grant; Jody L. Herman (2011–2012). "A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and Otherwise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey"(PDF). LGBTQ Policy Journal. Harvard Kennedy School. 2. 
  7. ^ abc"A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey - The Task Force". The Task Force. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  8. ^"James Roffee & Andrea Waling Rethinking microaggressions and anti-social behaviour against LGBTIQ+ Youth". Safer Communities. 15: 190–201. doi:10.1108/SC-02-2016-0004. 
  9. ^Grant, Jaime M., Mottet, Lisa A., & Tanis, Justin (April 26, 2017). "Injustice At Every Turn: A Report Of The National Transgender Discrimination Survey"(PDF). thetaskforce.org. Archived from the original(PDF) on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  10. ^"National Transgender Discrimination Survey". National Center for Transgender Equality. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  11. ^Davidson, Skylar (April 26, 2017). "Gender Inequality: Nonbinary Transgender People in the Workplace". umass.edu. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. 
  12. ^ abcd"Non-Binary Identities & the Law | Transgender Law Center". transgenderlawcenter.org. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  13. ^ abWhitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob (2016-01-05). "Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations". PLOS ONE. 11 (1): e0146139. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146139. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4701471. PMID 26731405. 
  14. ^"Experiences of non-binary people accessing healthcare". UK Trans Info. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  15. ^Ansara, Y. Gavriel (2015-10-01). "Challenging cisgenderism in the ageing and aged care sector: Meeting the needs of older people of trans and/or non-binary experience". Australasian Journal on Ageing. 34: 14–18. doi:10.1111/ajag.12278. ISSN 1741-6612. 
  16. ^"State Laws That Prohibit Discrimination Against Transgender People - National Center for Lesbian Rights". www.nclrights.org. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  17. ^"10 Myths About Non-Binary People It's Time to Unlearn". Everyday Feminism. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  18. ^Skeen, Lisa (April 5, 2017). "Gender Identity Recognition at the Border and Beyond". Open Society Foundations. Retrieved October 26, 2017. 
  19. ^"Understanding the Transgender Community". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved October 26, 2017. 
  20. ^https://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/intersex-dana-zzyym-passport-decision/
  21. ^http://www.lambdalegal.org/know-your-rights/article/trans-identity-document-faq
  22. ^"Changing Birth Certificate Sex Designations: State-By-State Guidelines". Lambda Legal. February 3, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2017. 
  23. ^Gutierrez, Melody (January 26, 2017). "Bill seeks 3rd gender option on licenses, birth certificates". SFGate. Hearst. Retrieved October 26, 2017. 
  24. ^Bowerman, Mary (January 26, 2017). "Female, male or non-binary: California legally recognizes a third gender on identification documents". USA Today. Gannett. Retrieved October 26, 2017. 
  25. ^Dake, Lauren (16 June 2016). "Jamie Shupe becomes first legally non-binary person in the US" – via The Guardian. 
  26. ^"Californian becomes second US citizen granted 'non-binary' gender status". 
  27. ^